Correction, Retraction, and Withdrawal


Some mistakes or omissions are inevitable and do not affect the findings and the scientific integrity of the paper. If authors detect any errors in the published article, please contact the journal editor as soon as possible. Under this consideration, the corresponding author will be responsible for sharing the details of the errors with the journal. A corrigendum will be linked to the article corrected under the approval and guidance of the editor.

On rare occasions, the Publisher may correct some minor errors made during the production of an article. If these cases occur, the journal will post an Erratum to correct the errors, and the Erratum will be linked to the article corrected.


A published article may be retracted if its integrity is seriously compromised by errors in the conduct, analysis, and/or reporting of the research. If the research violates publication or research ethics, it may also result in the article being retracted. The original version of a retracted article will be marked as retracted. A retraction typically includes a declaration of the reason and initiating party. The PDF content of the article is still available to readers. All links related to the publication online will be pointed to the Retraction. Once a retraction decision is made, all the authors and their institutes will be notified.


Authors may request a withdrawal of an article. But withdrawal of an article, especially one that has been processed to be under peer review or in progress before being published, is strongly discouraged and only used when there are academic misconducts, ethical violations in the research and publication, or an earlier/incorrect version of the article alleged during the publication process. In this case, a panel will organize an investigation in which the authors are required to cooperate. If the allegations are proven to be true, the internal record of this article will be marked for withdrawal, and the journal will retain a copy of the withdrawn work in the submission archive.

If the authors themselves decide to withdraw their paper (before the publication), they must write to the editors of the journal at, stating the reason(s) for withdrawal soundly and clearly. Once the withdrawal is approved, the submission will be removed from the production system but archived in the submission system. A notification email will be sent to all authors. The Publisher will track the authors’ requests and limit a maximum of three withdrawal requests across the journals in USP.

A USD200 fee is charged for the withdrawal of a paper, and it should be noted that the paid Article Processing Charge will not be refunded if a paper is withdrawn for academic misconduct and ethical violation.